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Wrists & Elbows – Bill Star

May 22, 2011

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In this installment I want to focus on two relatively small joints that seldom get any direct attention in a strength program: the wrists and elbows. Although the wrists and elbows play an important role in our daily lives and we use them in a vast portion of the exercises done in a strength routine, rarely are they given much consideration – that is, until they get injured. Then the reality of just how much we depend on them becomes crystal clear.

Any movement that involves the arms brings the wrists and elbows into action, which is why these two joints frequently get overworked. In fact, it’s rather difficult to come up with any physical activity that doesn’t include the wrists and elbows. Even the simplest tasks require their support. My wrist is largely responsible for the words I write on paper and is used even more when I type them. Lifting a cup of coffee to my mouth, opening a door, tugging a box of books from a high shelf, driving, bathing – the list is endless. Yet we take the movements for granted until something happens that prevents us from using our arms as we normally would. A chronically sore or injured wrist or elbow is extremely troublesome.

I’ll begin with the wrist. Severe injuries have to be dealt with right away, and they take a very long time to heal. That’s because the wrist is made up of bones, tendons, ligaments and soft tissue but very little muscle. Injuries to the attachments always take longer to recover than injuries to muscle tissue. Because the wrists take part in such a wide range of movements, from the simple to the complex, they can be dinged rather easily.

The wrist joint is a marvelous piece of work. The wrist, which connects the hand to the forearm, is made up of not one but three distinct joints – radiocarpal, intercarpal and carpometacarpal – that permit an unusual amount of hand movement. The radiocarpal joint lies between the end of the radius, which is the thicker and shorter of the two bones in the forearm; the intercarpal articulation is a gliding joint between the two rows of carpal bones; and the carpometacarpal joints lie between the carpal and metacarpal bones.

There is also a maze of cartilage, synovial sacs and bones, which work together synergistically to make the wrist function properly. And function it does. Together, the wrist joints permit abduction, adduction, circumduction, flexion and extension. The free rotation of the shoulder and radio-ulnar joints (the thinner and longer of the two forearm bones on the pinky-finger side) let the hand turn 270 degrees. Starting from the straight extended position, you can flex your wrist through from 60 to 90 degrees.

The brief anatomy lesson is to emphasize that the wrist is a complex mechanism, potentially capable of performing amazing feats yet very vulnerable because of its size.

My first injury in the weight room was a sprained wrist. It wasn’t because of my stupidity or because of faulty form. Rather, it was from faulty equipment. The Olympic bar in the downstairs weight room at the Wichita Falls, Texas, YMCA had a tendency to freeze every so often. Those who trained there knew that and took precautions. We would spin the bar a few times before doing any exercise that required it to rotate freely. It had locked up on me several times, but I was never in a precarious situation, so I just dumped it. Then one day I was doing full cleans, and as I moved into the bottom position on my third rep, the bar failed to rotate, and my left elbow jammed into my thigh. a white-hot jolt shot from my wrist to my brain. I dumped the bar and knew that I’d sprained my wrist.

That was my first encounter with a wrist problem, but I wasn’t too alarmed. I was a medical corpsman in the Air Force, and over the years I’d treated many sprained wrists. I did understand, however, that I was through cleaning for the day. Then I quickly found out that I was also through handling any more weights. There was very little I could do with a dinged wrist. Back squats were out, as were pulls, presses and dips. I ended up doing 20 minutes of ab work and left.

As soon as I got back to the hospital where I worked on Sheppard Air Force Base, I started treating my injury. I iced it, then wrapped it tightly in an elastic bandage. I followed the established procedure for icing, 20 minutes on, 20 off, and kept it snugly wrapped between sessions. There was also an ultrasound in the emergency room where I was assigned duty, and I used that a couple of times a day. The swelling subsided in a few days, and I decided to go the Y, which was my second home, and do some type of exercise. I would stay away from the weight room for a while, just so I didn’t try something foolish. I tried swimming. That didn’t work out too well, and neither did basketball because out of habit I kept bringing my left hand into the action. Finally I settled on multiple games of handball and racquetball.

The bandage wasn’t panning out either. If I wrapped my wrist too tight, it cut off circulation to my hand. If it was too loose, it was useless. So I started using trainer’s tape, which worked well. I managed to do what needed to be done in the emergency room without bothering my injury. Still, suturing, moving patients off gurneys and dealing with the floor buffer all required two hands, and I did all those tasks very deliberately. I started squeezing a ball I’d made from the trainer’s tape, which was more effective than a rubber ball or grippers. I would do that whenever I had some free time and I could tell that it was helping the wrist get stronger.

I wanted to find some way to protect the injured wrist when I started back on the weights and recalled seeing a photo of Paul Anderson wearing thick wrist straps. Leather shops abound in Texas, and I found one that was willing to design a set of strong straps to fit my small wrists. I would lock the weight down snugly with trainer’s tape, then secure it with the strap on my hurt wrist. On my healthy wrist I used tape only. I was also doing everything I could to speed healing. I dug into the reference material in the emergency room and came across a couple of ideas – soaking in Epsom salts and alternating hot and cold. I did both. I’d ice the wrist for 20 minutes, then hold it under hot water laced with Epsom salts for 10 minutes or so, then repeat the procedure.

After a week of therapy, rest and squeezing my tape ball, my wrist started feeling much stronger. Yet I remained cautious because the injury had really thrown me for a loop. Over the years I’d dinged several joints and strained a large number of muscles playing a wide range of sports, but all of those injuries had healed rather quickly – mostly because I’d been in my teens. This wrist, though, was recovering very slowly. My biggest fear was that I’d hurt it again, and I knew what that would mean.

So my first time back in the weight room was with some trepidation. When I checked to see whether I could do some exercise, I used light weights and did the movement slowly. Any sign that it was bothering my injured wrist was a signal to stop. I was able to squat and flat bench with light weights, and I could also deadlift if I kept my arms perfectly straight. I loaded the plates on the bar with extreme care after I got a shock in my hurt wrist when I didn’t pay close enough attention to that seemingly harmless move.

After another week of nursing my wrist, I decided to do more to strengthen it. I’d watched some of the wrestlers and bodybuilders doing wrist curls with a bar, and I started doing them. I was wary of using the 45-pound Olympic bar and so did wrist curls with palms up and with palms down on the smaller bar used on the lat-pull machine. I continued the hot and cold soaks and kept the hurt wrist taped around the clock, even when I slept, because soon after I’d injured it, I’d gotten up in the middle of the night to go to the bathroom and inadvertently flipped the flushing device with my left hand. A stabbing pain shot up my arm – lesson enough for me. Wrapping the wrist at night made sure I wouldn’t roll over and use my bad wrist. It also served as a reminder to be careful when I got up.

It took nearly six weeks for my wrist to become strong enough for me to go back to my normal workouts. I kept doing the strength-training exercises for my wrists and wrapping them. Indeed, it was an education on how easily small joints can get hurt and how ridiculously long it takes, even when using proper procedure, for them to get back to full strength.

Since that episode in Wichita Falls I’ve found several other excellent exercises for building wrist strength. They, like the wrist curls, are also useful in rehabbing an injury.

The very best exercise for strengthening the wrists is a simple one, and I’ve used it with great success on all the sports teams that rely heavily on wrist strength – in sports such as lacrosse, baseball, the throwing events in track and field and, of course, wrestling and Olympic weightlifting. It’s extremely important for those athletes to have strong wrists since those small joints are responsible for transferring power from the legs, hips, back, shoulders and arms up into the shot put, discus, javelin, lacrosse stick, bat and ball. A wrestler must have them in order to take control of a match. The exercise is called, quite appropriately, the wrist roller. So is the apparatus you use to perform it.

Wrist rollers are available through many weight equipment companies, but they can be built rather easily. I know because I’ve done it, and I am mechanically inept. A two-foot long section of broomstick will serve the purpose, but something with a slightly larger diameter is even better. Drill a hole through the middle and insert a length of clothesline through it. The clothesline needs to be long enough so that when you extend your arms straight out front, it touches the floor. Next, attach a weight to the end of the clothesline, and, presto! You have a wrist roller.

Use an overhand grip with the wrist roller directly in front of you at arms’ length, and roll the weight up until it touches the wood. Then SLOWLY lower it back to the floor. Both the up and down movements should be continuous and smooth. The most athletes can usually manage the first few times are two ups and two downs. That’s okay because you can add from there. Some have to start with a five-pound plate, while others are able to use a 10-pounder. The exercise must be pushed to the limit to gain the desired results. If your wrists and forearms aren’t screaming for mercy, you’re not working hard enough. The most I’ve ever seen anyone do is six consecutive ups and downs with a 10-pound plate.

When I see that an athlete’s shoulders are giving out before his wrists and forearms, I have him rest his upper arms across a bar in the power or squat rack and do wrist rollers from there. This apparatus can be used at home on nontraining days to give the wrists a bit of extra work.

I mentioned two other excellent wrist exercises earlier. Now I want to explain how to do them. You can do wrist curls with dumbells or a straight bar, with palms either up or down. Sit on the end of a bench or chair and rest your forearms across your thighs with your wrists extended beyond your knees. Grip the bar with your hands about 12” apart. If you use a dumbell, place your elbow on your thigh, and do the wrist curls between your legs.

Do as many as you can using one version, and then switch to the other for three or four sets or until you know you’ve run out of gas. When doing the palms-up version, let the bar roll down your hand until you can just barely hold it with your fingers. Then curl your fingers back until you’ve firmly gripped the bar and completed the curl.

Wrist curls are enough to strengthen your wrists, but if you like variety here’s another exercise that will bring desired results. A leverage bar can be rigged rather easily. You can use a short bar or even a three- or four-foot piece of broomstick. Attach a five- or ten-pound plate to one end. Tape will work. Hold the bar or stick by your side with the weight on the floor. Now, without moving your upper arm at all, elevate the weight until it’s vertical. Hold it for a brief second and slowly return it to the floor. The movements have to be controlled. If the weight is swinging about or being lifted in a herky-jerky manner, it won’t be effective. In fact, ugly technique can be quite stressful to your wrists and cause problems.

Then there are the grippers. If you happen to be interested in grip strength, you need to get a catalog from IronMind. It has a huge selection of grippers, from beginners to very advanced, plus wrist rollers, leverage bars, grip machines, pinch grippers and a wide assortment of other gadgets for improving grip strength. The products aren’t cheap, but they’re extremely well-crafted and are worth the money.

While the majority of wrist injuries occur during an accident, such as a fall or an athletic event, a great many happen because of faulty form in the weight room. Your wrists get stressed when they move about doing a pressing movement when they stay in an extreme flexed position with heavy weights, as in racking a heavy front squat, and when they’re twisted to the extreme. So take care to do every exercise correctly, and as a precaution always wrap your wrists when doing any movement that works them directly.

Elbow problems come about for the same reason and also from overwork. Typically, sloppy technique and overtraining happen at the same time. There are also a couple of exercises that place the elbows in a disadvantaged position and that I have on my taboo list: skull crushers and French presses. Unless you’re very advanced, these movements should not be in your program. I find no reason to do them; many others that do not place the elbows at risk are more productive.

Using a jamming motion on any exercise that involves the elbows is inviting trouble. The biggest culprit is the flat bench. Numbers take precedence over technique, and the elbows get abused. Also be aware that elbow injuries can occur even when you use light weights. I have an older friend who irritated both his elbows using just a 45-pound bar.

The elbow is made up of two joints: the elbow joint, which handles flexion and extension of the radius and ulna with respect to the humerus, or upper-arm bone; and the radio-ulnar joint, which handles pronation and supination of the forearm. Together, they act as a hinge joint and are part of any arm movement. When abused, the tendons become inflamed, resulting in classic tennis elbow. Though it may not be the most painful injury in athletics, it ranks high. When your elbow is out of commission, you suddenly find that you can no longer do a great many movements, and trying to train with an injured elbow is out of the question.

That’s why you must pay close attention when training. Use ideal technique, avoid any exercise that places undue stress on the joints, and don’t overwork. Keep in mind that the elbow is a relatively small joint and can take only so much. What most athletes don’t recognize is that the elbows play a key role in every pulling exercise, along with every pressing movement. In any program that’s a great deal of work, and I’ve watched athletes go through programs that involved the elbows on every single exercise.

Knowing which muscles and corresponding attachments are directly responsible for securing and protecting the elbow joints goes a long way toward understanding what exercises to use to keep them strong. Whenever I ask athletes that question, they invariably respond, “The biceps and triceps.” That’s half right. The biceps play a minor role. The key players are the triceps, the anconeus, which can be thought of as an extension to the triceps, the forearm muscles and the brachioradialis and brachialis, which are the two prime movers of the arm. The latter two wrap around the elbow joint and are potentially very strong muscles. Thus the greater part of stabilizing the joint falls on them.

That means you need to be doing plenty of pressing movements and lots of heavy, dynamic pulling, as the two prime movers respond favorably to those exercises. So it’s power snatches, power cleans and, even better, clean and snatch high pulls, shrugs and bentover rows. You can use much heavier weight on those lifts, and you’ll be able to overload the brachialis and brachioradialis and make them considerably stronger.

Any type of pressing movement strengthens the triceps and anconeus. Flat and incline benches, overhead presses, push presses and weighted dips are excellent for building power in the three heads of the triceps. I said earlier that I discourage athletes from doing skull crushers and French presses because they put too much stress on the elbows. In their place I recommend straight-arm pullovers and pushdowns on the lat machine, where you don’t let the bar come up any higher than the bottom of your breastbone. I really like straight-arm pullovers. You can use a great deal of weight, and it’s not the least bit stressful to the elbows because they remain straight, or almost straight, throughout the exercise. Plus, the exercise hits the long head of the triceps very directly – the only one I know of that can make that claim.

You do straight-arm pullovers as an auxiliary movement for two sets of 20. I had a host of athletes who were handling 120 pounds for the two sets. In most of my programs they’re the only specific I use for the triceps.

For anyone who wants more work on that muscle group I prescribe pushdowns on the lat machine. Those must be done smoothly and deliberately. Any jerking around will be counterproductive because it will end up irritating your elbows.

The keys to keeping your elbows strong and injury free are as follows: use perfect technique on any exercise that includes your elbows, even seemingly tame ones like curls; keep tabs on how many exercises you have in your routine that involve your elbows; and do at least a couple of exercises that strengthen the groups that support and stabilize that rather small joint. If you get an early-warning signal that you’re doing too much work or doing an exercise incorrectly, such as a slight pain at the end of a set, lower the workload on your elbows.

Other precautions will help you avoid injuring your elbows. Make sure you warm them up thoroughly before you start lifting, especially in cold weather, and make sure they stay warm throughout the workout. Sweatshirts, wraps, and muscle rubs might be in order, but they’re worth the trouble.

The same goes for the wrists. If you have a history of wrist injuries or have rather small wrists, wrap them prior to every session in the weight room. That’s particularly important if you’re planning on doing front squats, jerks or any other exercise that places a lot of pressure on your wrists. In addition, be sure to have at least one specific exercise for your wrists in your routine. You can easily do them on your nonlifting days, and not only will they help you prevent an injury but also enable you to handle more weight on a wide range of exercises.

Although your wrists and elbows might be somewhat puny compared to your other joints, they’re no less critical to success in strength training. Take care of them the best you know how. Believe me, you’ll be glad you did.

Author: Bill Star

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Grip Power – Greg Zulak

May 22, 2011

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Although the basic laws of muscle physiology, as related to muscle growth, apply to the forearms as they would any other muscle group, you probably find you have to actually work the forearms harder than any other muscle group (calves excepted!) to make them grow in size and strength. That is, unless you have naturally large and responsive forearms. Although the forearms are difficult for most to build and strengthen, if worked intensely and persistently, they WILL improve, and few muscles can be more rewarding to develop.

But again, you have to think of your hands, wrists, forearms and upper arms as a chain, If your forearms are weak and undeveloped you’ll never be able to handle weights heavy enough to make progress throughout the rest of your body. Work the whole chain if you want make progress on the whole. You must try to get your hands, fingers, wrists and forearms as strong as you can, and this will provide a strong base for your total development.

It might interest you, if you are primarily a bodybuilder, that except for the neck, the hands, wrists and forearms are nearly always exposed. If you’ve ever seen a top bodybuilder with huge muscular forearms – Chuck Sipes, Dave Draper, Casey Viator, Mike Mentzer, Larry Scott, etc. etc. – you’ll know and remember how impressive such lower arms can be. They look like they could rip railroad ties in half with their bare hands.

There are also practical reasons for building a strong, vise-like grip. It can be embarrassing if you can’t even open a pickle jar, only to watch as your girlfriend, wife or daughter easily does it. I recall Bob Kennedy telling me the story about the time Dave Draper was visiting Reg Park in South Africa. One day they were out for a drive when they wound up with a flat tire, with a spare and a lug wrench but no jack. No problem. They took turns holding the car off the ground while putting on the spare! If you’ve ever done a heavy deadlift and tried to hold the bar for 10 or 15 seconds, you know how tiring this is on the grip. Now try to imagine holding up on end of a car while a spare is put on.

Old-time strongmen like Louis Cyr, Mac Batchelor, Apollon and Hermann Goerner all sported massive, powerful forearms and incredible gripping strength because they devoted plenty of time to their forearm and grip training. They had to. All the strength and lifting feats they did required enormous grip power and strong development. They took great pride in this power, much more so than upper arm size, and would regularly test their grip by lifting thick handled dumbells, heavy anvils, kettlebells and odd-shaped objects, with which they would do one and two arm lifts – especially heavy cleans, deadlifts and overhead movements. They’d also spend considerable time pinch-gripping smooth plates, doing pinch-grip chins and just about anything and everything else imaginable to build their gripping power. Modern lifters often shy away from that kind of work.

Before we get into the movements to be used and routines you can try, keep in mind that forearm development and shape are largely genetic. There’s not a great deal you can do to change the natural shape of your forearms. If you were not blessed with long, full muscle bellies all the lifting in world won’t change that, BUT, you CAN build up your forearm size and grip strength to the highest level available to you.


Earlier I spoke about old-time strongmen who devoted a lot of time and energy to developing powerful grips. I’d be willing wager that the average lifter of 50 or 100 years ago had a much stronger grip than the average trainer today. A good test of your grip strength, a simplified home version of David Willoughby’s grip dynamometer tests, is to squeeze your bathroom scale. Do this with both with two hands and with right and left hands individually. It is said that Bruce White, Australian grip specialist, squeezed 308 lbs. on his bathroom scales at only 148 bodyweight! The average untrained man is lucky if he can do 120 lbs.

The fun thing about squeezing the scales is you can do sets and reps just as you would with weights and use one or two hands. You can challenge yourself, even with something as simple as this.

Old-timers also had powerful grips because they did so much of their lifting with thick-handled (2 to 3 inch) barbells and dumbells. It’s also important to remember that many of these earlier strongmen worked with bells that were a far cry from the smooth-revolving Olympic bars of today. As they say, “it’s a poor carpenter.” You can create your own thick-handled barbells and dumbells by either wrapping more and more layers of tape around the grip points of the bar, or go to your hardware store and buy 2 to 3 inch pipe cut to measure to fit onto your bar or dumbells. Put the pipe over the bar in place of the revolving sleeve.

You can also put the thick pipe of wrap tape or towels around a chinning bar and get a great grip workout. Old-timers used to chin from rafters using a pinch grip and were capable of doing some incredible feats this way. Pinch gripping smooth barbell plates has long been used to develop strength. Start with two ten lb. plates and see how long you can hold them before they start to slip out of your fingers. Work up to bigger smooth plates, or try some of the numerous grip devices available here –

and from many other suppliers.

To really give your fingers a heavy workout, superset pinch-gripping plates with finger tip pushups. Work on building up the number of reps of fingertip pushups you can do and the amount of weight-for-time you can hold in the pinch grip.

Here are some other finger, grip and wrist strengtheners you can work on:

Try deadlifting with a thumbless grip (don’t wrap the thumbs around the fingers). Do this in a power rack for safety. Set the pins so the weight only has to be lifted a few inches. Hold as long as you can and try to lift more, longer. For a real challenge work on holds using single fingers or combinations of fingers.

Try chinning using with a thumbless grip. Hold for time or go for reps. Chin or hand for time with two tennis balls, one squeezed in each hand between the bar and your fingers. Try chinning while holding a towel hanging from the bar. Try softball pull-ups. You need two softballs, two long threaded eyebolts, two washers and nuts, chain and two strong carabiners or hooks. Drill a hole through the softballs large enough to push the eyebolts through. Place one washer and thread one nut onto each ball. You would take two short pieces of chain of equal length. Loop them over the pull-up bar and hook the two ends of each chain onto the eyebolts by way of the carabiners or hooks. Make sure they are strong enough to hold your weight. Grip the softballs with your hands and do your pull-ups. As mentioned before, rafter chins and holds. With a little creativity and a lot of hard work any pinch or grip-handle can be used for chins.

Try pinch-lifting a 35 or 45 lb. Olympic plate by its hub (the raised part around the center hole). If this is too hard start with a 10 lb. plate gripping the outer edge of the plate, and work up over time.

Try very heavy (100 lbs. over max weight) bench press “holds” in the power rack. Like the top deadlifts, you only lift the weight 2” and hold as long as you can. Needless to say, use the catchers, start light and build up slowly.

Try the farmers walk – walking while holding heavy dumbells or specially made lifting implements.

Another effective grip strengthener is to use a grip machine, both single-handed and both hands at once. The grip machine allows you to add weight progressively and really gives the fingers, hands, wrists and forearms a good workout.

The time-proven wrist roller should not be ignored. Roll both up and back down with the palms up and palms down. Do three rolls each way each grip workout. Make sure you add weight when you can to make the exercise harder.

Just squeezing hard is very effective for building the grip. Try squeezing a rubber ball or a thick towel as hard as you can for about ten seconds. Then relax and repeat. Squeeze mostly with the fingers. Do 3 sets of 3-5 squeezes. The disadvantage to this is you cannot tell how much harder you are squeezing over time, but if you test yourself on the bathroom scales you should see the results of these isometric squeezes.

Here are some further grip-training ideas –

Stretching the fingers, hands and wrists will help maintain flexibility and relieve stiffness.

The forearm back bend – Try to relax your body, take several deep breaths and then hold your breath as you do the first “rep.” Try to focus all your energy, both physical and mental, in your hands. Bend your hand back at the wrist and gradually try to touch your knuckles to your forearm. Pull back with the other hand. Hold for 7 to 10 seconds and relax. Perform this several times for each hand.

The fist pull – Again relax, breathe fully and hold your last breath. Form a fist, then bend your wrist and try to touch your fingers to the underside of your forearm. Pull for 7 to 10 seconds, relax and repeat. Do several pulls for each hand.

The spider web – Relax, breathe fully, holding your last breath. Spread your fingers and thumb as far apart from each other as possible. Do this for 7 to 10 seconds as hard as you can, relax, and repeat with the other hand. Do this several times with each hand.

Author: Greg Zulak

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Juggling Plates – Daniel Evans

May 22, 2011

grip daniel evans grip training hand strength atomgripzTraining shouldn’t be about laziness. This is a given. We visit the gym to do one thing – move weight, yet it is suprising to see how many people are unwilling to put in the effort to prepare the bar. Some people will even go as far as avoiding a movement unless the previous person has left a convenient loaded bar in the rack – at waist height no less.

What needs to be realized is that training isn’t just about moving weight from an elevated position from a rack. The loading of the bar isn’t a burden. The loading of the bar is part of training – as is lifting the bar into position.

A plate lifted from the floor is deadlifted working the posterior chain. The pinch required to hold the plate is a grip dependant execution where fingers and forearms are worked. The entire experience of the gym is a workout.

Once the trainee comes to this realization they can begin to play with this principle making fun of what was previously seen as a tiresome chore.

If you load 10kg plates, squat down and pinch it with a single hand. Swing it to load it onto the bar with one hand to work the grip, wrist and forearms. When you miss try again.

When you adjust the catcher pin of the power rack, do it one handed and lever the pin with the wrist working it onto the rack holes to stress the wrists. Make a game of it. Try to do it on one fluid motion. Try to beat your previous weeks attempt.

Ask yourself why you should take interest in these insignificant practices. Ask yourself why you should squat down to lift that plate or bar from the floor then consider this:

Lifting a bar into position from the floor 5 times twice per week gives a grand total of 520 deadlifts per year.

The very same factor is applicable to handling plates to prepare the bar and every other movement carried out to prepare equipment.

The cumulation is huge.

Training isn’t dictated to us to the last letter. It’s up to the individual to style their training to their own requirements – to keep stimulus constant and functional. Laziness breeds laziness. Until people break out of the conventional rut and spark a light of creativity with unorthodox practices of their own all chores will remain chores!

Go juggle some plates!

Author: Daniel Evans

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